GLOBAL INDEX METHODOLOGY

Data for the second annual YouthfulCities Global Index was collected between September 2014 and April 2015 and largely reflects information current for 2013-2014.

 

In November 2013 we launched the first YouthfulCities Global Index. Using primary and secondary data sources, it ranked 25 cities across 80 indicators for a total of 2000 data points. Since then we’ve nearly tripled our research database and more than doubled our list of cities. The result is that the second Index paints an even more robust, informed and reliable picture of how each city stacks up against the priorities of youth around the world.

Data for the second annual YouthfulCities Global Index was collected between September 2014 and April 2015 and largely reflects information current for 2013-2014.

 

In November 2013 we launched the first YouthfulCities Global Index. Using primary and secondary data sources, it ranked 25 cities across 80 indicators for a total of 2000 data points. Since then we’ve nearly tripled our research database and more than doubled our list of cities. The result is that the second Index paints an even more robust, informed and reliable picture of how each city stacks up against the priorities of youth around the world.

 

One of our greatest challenges was developing a research methodology that provides results that are comparable across all cities.

 

Our methodology is made up of two key steps:
  • Determining what to measure in cities. We use our  Urban Millennial Survey: A quantitative survey of 9000 youth living in cities around the world, asking what is important to youth about their cities. This led us to establish 20 Urban Attributes for measurement across all 55 cities.

  • Collecting data to measure cities: YouthfulCities Global Index: A massive global database that measures, compares and ranks the 55 cities in our Index across 20 Urban Attributes using a total of 101 indicators. The indicators consist of primary and secondary data that Urban Decoders - our globally dispersed team of young urban researchers - collect locally and submit using collaborative, cloud-based research workbooks.

 

IMPORTANT NOTE: The Survey data is not used as Index data. It is only used to build a more inclusive and credible weighting system for the Index. ie. Safety is more important to youth than Fashion so the Index scores should reflect this.

 

Checking the primary and secondary YouthfulCities Global Index data

Once work is collected and submitted all data goes through a rigorous internal review and check. Every data point is submitted along with a reliable source. The internal YouthfulCities team, along with external academic advisors, goes over the data points and sources, flags anything that does not hold up to scrutiny, and if necessary, uses our source database to replace the data point. All data checking is done collaboratively and can be tracked by all team members.

 

Normalizing the YouthfulCities Global Index data

Once data is checked it needs to be normalized in order to accurately compare each city:

  • Where necessary, data is converted to metric units

  • All cost-based data is normalized to US dollars, measured against the average value of the local currency, January 1st to December 31, 2013

  • Since we’re motivated by a desire to measure cities from the perspective of youth, and since reliable average youth income data does not exist in the majority of the cities in our Index, we measure all cost indicators relative to one hour of minimum wage labour in US dollars in each city. For example:

  • If minimum wage in a city is $10 and the cost of a movie ticket is $12, the cost of a movie ticket, tied to minimum wage equals 1.2

 

Comparing data from different years

Wherever possible, data was gathered from the same calendar. Given the different intervals of census deliveries and alternate data source availability, for some indicators we needed to compare data from different years. As a rule we only go back as far as five years.

 

Scale and boundary issues

For a very small number of indicators, city level data was unavailable. In these cases we collected data from province/state or national sources. To normalize the data collected from this larger sample we took the total population of a given city as a percentage of the total population of the broader area, and then multiplied the data collected from the broader area against the percentage that the city represented.

 

Cohort issues

When data was not available for youth aged 15-29 we used a weighting system to allow us to use data from differently defined groups. For example, if population data was not available for youth aged 15 to 29 but was available for 15 to 24 years and 25 to 34 years, we used the 15 to 24 years data, and half of the total data from 25 to 34 years.

 

Hierarchy of data credibility

Primary and secondary data was collected from a number of sources. YouthfulCities collected primary data by talking to key sources in person, by email and by telephone. Secondary data collection was done largely through online research. Our sources include census reports, municipal offices and websites, non-governmental organizations, academic sources (e.g. journal articles, development indexes and reports) and other online sources (e.g. crowdsourcing sites like expatistan.com).

 

Ranking the YouthfulCities Global Index data

Once all data is normalized, the 55 cities in the YouthfulCities Global Index are ranked using a scoring system that takes the normalized data from each of the 101 indicators and translates every data point into weighted scores via the following:

 

For each indicator we have decided if a high number or a low number is the most desirable for youth. For example:

  • In the number of entrepreneurship incubators indicator, a higher number of entrepreneurship incubators wins; versus,

  • In the youth unemployment indicator, a lower youth unemployment rate wins.

  • Raw scores are then translated into a value out of 100 using a relational scoring system:

  • For high number indicators the highest number gains 100 points for that city

  • For low number indicators the lowest number gains 100 points for that city

  • Points are then allocated to other cities based on a differential equation

  • 100-(net difference to winning number x differential ratio)

  • Each city’s points are then translated into weighted scores based on the importance rankings determined for each urban attribute. Importance rankings come from the 2014 Urban Attitudes Survey, which measured the average importance of the attributes for youth. Values listed are out of 10.

 

Cities' overall scores and rankings

The overall index scores result from summing the average of the indicator scores across each Urban Attribute. For example, the Transit Attribute is made up of 10 indicators. Each city gets a score for each indicator in the Transit Attribute. The average of these 10 indicator scores makes up the attribute score. All 20 attribute scores are summed in order to determine a city’s overall score and rank.

 

Imputed data

While reliable, robust and defensible data is available for the overwhelming majority of our indicators across all 55 cities, in an extreme minority of cases (<2%) reliable data simply does not exist. Where data does not exist we take a regional average in order to assign a score.

 

Obtaining reliable and comparable data for the 55 cities is the most difficult part of the YouthfulCities Global Index process. We want to be as representative as possible in the data that we employ. If you feel you have a better way of measuring cities from a youth perspective, we want to hear from you!

 

Accessible Information

YouthfulCities is a social enterprise, and therefore we will publicly release the scoring but not the individual data points. If there is interest in the data points please feel free to contact us. The data will be available for youth in order to encourage the use of the index for improving their cities. A small fee will be applied to this service for non-youth. A short explanation as to which data is requested and what use is intended will be part of the request process.

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